Imam Al-Hassan Al-Askari-asws Ibn Ali Al-Naqi-asws‘s Kuniya: Abu Muhammad
‘Abu Muhammad al-Hassan ibn Ali-asws’s Nazool was on the 10th of the month of Rabi’ul Thani in 232 A.H. and the Shahadat of (Imam Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws) was on the 8th of Rabi’ul Awwal.’ Zahoor 10th of Rabi’ul Thani. It has been narrated) in ‘Misbah’ Al-Musbaheen that the Zahoor of Imam Abi-Mohamed Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Mohammed-asws Bin Ali Al-Reza-asws was on the 10th of the month of Rabi’ul Thani in 232 A.H (after the migration from Mecca to Madina).
Mohamed Bin Talha said that the Shahadat of (Imam Hassan Ibn Ali) was on the 8th of Rabi’ul Awwal.
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘One day I was standing next to my father (as an assistant or guard) and it was the day of his meeting people. His guards came and said; ‘Abu Mohammed‑asws ibn Al-Reza-asws is at the door.’ He said loudly, ‘Allow him to come in.’ I was surprised at how boldly they announced his presence, as only a Caliph, crown Caliph or one with the command of the Sultan was addressed in such a way.
A man with a fair complexion came in. His height was good and his face looked handsome, physically very good and young. He looked majestic and respectful. When my father looked at him-asws he stood up and walked toward him several steps. I had not seen him doing this to a person from the clan of Banu Hashim and the officers. (After some time) He (the Imam-asws) stood up and my father also stood up and embraced him-asws and he-asws left. I asked the guards of my father and his servants, ‘Woe is you, who was the man-asws whom you addressed by his Kunya before my father and my father treated him-asws as he did?’ They said, ‘This ‘Alawid man is called Al-Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws known as Ibn Al-Reza-asws.
At night, I asked my father, who was the man you showed such respect? He said, ‘My son, he was the Imam-asws (Leadership with Divine Authority) of the Al-Rafida (those who refuse to accept the leadership of people other than Ali-asws Ibn Abu Talib-asws and his infallible descendants-asws).
He is Al-Hassan-asws Ibn Ali-asws.’ He remained quiet for a while and then said, ‘My son if the Imamat (leadership) would be removed from the Abbassid Caliphs no one from the clan of Banu Hashim could deserve to become the Imam-asws except this man-asws. He-asws deserves it because of his distinctions, piety, guidance, safety (from mistakes), his-asws chastity, his-asws worship, his-asws beautiful moral characteristics and perfection. Had you had a chance to see his-asws father you would have seen a man of great intelligence, nobility and excellence.’ This made me feel anxious and angry as I thought my father’s behaviour towards him-asws and his words for him-asws were excessive.
‘Thereafter, there was nothing more important to me than to ask more about him and to investigate his-asws affairs. I asked members of Hashemite clan or the guards, the clerks, the judges, the scholars of the law and other people about him-asws and always found him-asws being glorified, mentioned with greatness and a high position. I would hear very beautiful words about him-asws and see him-asws given preference over all members of Hashemite clan and their elders. A feeling of greatness for him-asws increased in my heart because I did not find anyone of his-asws friends or foe that did not speak well of him-asws and praise him-asws.
The narrator of the Hadith says:‘We were under pressure and constraint. My father said, ‘We should go to Abu Mohammed-asws for help. People describe him-asws as very generous and considerate.’ I asked, ‘Do you know him-asws?’ He said, ‘No, I do not know him-asws and I have not even seen him-asws as yet.’
We decided to go and meet him-asws. My father said on the way, ‘I hope he-asws will grant us five hundred Dirhams: two hundred for clothes, two hundred to pay the debts and one hundred for expenses. We need this amount urgently.’ I then said to myself, ‘I hope he-asws will grant me three hundred Dirhams, one hundred to buy a donkey, one hundred for expenses and one hundred for clothes and then I will go to the mountains.’
‘The narrator has said that when we arrived at the door a slave came out and said, ‘Ali ibn Ibrahim and his son Muhammad, please come inside.’ When we were in his (the Imam-asws’s) presence we offered ‘Salam (the greetings of peace). The Imam-asws said to my father. ‘O Ali, what held you back from coming to us-asws until now?’ He said, ‘My master, I felt shy to come to you-asws in this condition.’ When we left him-asws his slave came to us and gave a bag of money to my father saying, ‘This is five hundred Dirhams. Two hundred for clothes, two hundred to pay debts and one hundred for expenses.’ He gave me a bag and said, ‘This is three hundred Dirhams, one hundred for the donkey, one hundred for clothes and one hundred for expenses. Do not go to the mountains. Go to Sawra.’ He then went to Sawra’ and married a woman and now his income from properties is a thousand Dinar.
Despite this he belongs to the waqifi sect in matters of beliefs. Muhammad ibn Ibrahim has said that I said to him, ‘Woe is you! What more clear proof do you want to believe in him-asws as your Imam?’ He said, ‘This (belief in Waqifi sect) is a habit that has been with us (and it does not go away).
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I requested Imam Hassan Askari-asws for something that I needed. The Imam-asws scratched the earth with his-asws whip. I (the narrator) think he-asws then covered it with a handkerchief and then took out five hundred Dinars. The Imam-asws then said, ‘O Abu Hashim this is for you.’
Ishaq has said that Abu Hashim Al-Ja’fari has said the following: ‘Once I complained to Abu Mohammed-asws about the constraining cell of the prison and the weight of the shackles on me. He-asws wrote back in reply to me, ‘Today you will pray your noontime prayer in your own home.’ I was released that day and prayed the noontime prayer in my own home as he-asws had said. I was under financial constraints and I decided to ask him-asws for a certain amount of Dinars in writing but I felt shy. When I was going to my home he sent me a hundred Dinars and had written to me this: ‘If you need anything do not feel shy or embarrassed. Ask and you will find it as you wanted, by the will of Allah-azwj.
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘I had heard many times that Abu Mohammed-asws spoke to each of his Roman, Turkish and Saqaliba (European) slaves in their own languages. It was astonishing to me and I would think that the Imam-asws was native of al-Medina and had not been exposed to anyone until after Abu al-Hassan-asws had passed away and no one had seen him-asws (learning these languages). How it is that he-asws speaks such languages? I was talking to myself when the Imam-asws came to me and said, ‘Allah-azwj Grants distinction to the Imams-asws over the other creatures in all matters. He-azwj Gives them distinction in the matters of languages, knowledge of the genealogical issues, of the duration of lives and events. Without such distinctions there will be no difference between the Imams-asws and others.’’
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Two issues would tumble in my chest which made me write to Abu Mohammed-asws, I wrote about al-Qa’im-asws. ‘When he-ajfj will rise, by what means will he-ajfj judge among the people and where will be his-ajfj court house?’ I also wanted to ask him-asws about a fever but I had forgotten to mention it in writing. The answer came. ‘You had asked about al-Qa‘im-asws. When he-ajfj will rise he-ajfj will judge among people through his-ajfj own knowledge just the way (Prophet) David-as would judge. He-ajfj will not call any witness to testify. You also wanted to ask about alternating fever but you forgot to do so. Write this on a sheet (of material), ‘We said to the fire, be cool and peaceful (with Abraham).’ (21 :69). The narrator has said that we did just as the Imam-asws had said and the suffering person was cured.
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once I wrote to Abu Mohammed-asws requesting him-asws to pray for me because of the pain that I suffered in my eyes. One of my eyes had gone and the other was about to go. The Imam-asws wrote back to me in reply, ‘Allah-azwj has Kept your eye for you.’ My painful eye then recovered. The Imam-asws had signed at the end with these words, ‘May Allah-azwj Grant you good rewards and best recompense.’ I felt sad but I did not know who I have lost from my family. After a few days I received information of the death of my son, Tayyab. I then realized what his-asws condolences to me were for.’
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘One day I went to see Abu Mohammed-asws and I wanted him-asws to give me a certain amount of silver so I could make a ring out of it and keep it for blessing. I sat down but forgot to ask what I had come for. When I was leaving and said farewell to the Imam-asws he-asws threw a ring to me and said, ‘You wanted silver and we could give you a ring. You profited the gems and the cost of the goldsmith works. May Allah-azwj Grant you blessings, O Abu Hashim.’ I then said, ‘I testify that you-asws are the Wali of Allah-azwj, and my Imam-asws through my obedience to whom I follow the religion of Allah-azwj.’ He-asws then said, ‘May Allah-azwj Grant you forgiveness, O Abu Hashim.’’
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Abu Mohammed-asws was placed under the supervision of a zookeeper who caused constraints and suffering to the Imam-asws. He (the zookeeper) has said that his wife told him, ‘Woe is you, be pious before Allah-azwj. Do you not know who is in your house?’ She then explained to him the good manners of the Imam-asws and said, ‘I am afraid for you because he-asws is the Imam-asws.’ He then said, ‘I can throw him-asws to the beasts.’ He then did, and the Imam-asws was seen standing among them for prayer as the beasts circled around him-asws.
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once, I went to see Abu Mohammed-asws and asked him to write for me few lines so that whenever I see his handwriting I can recognise it. The Imam-asws said, ‘Yes,’ and then said, ‘O Ahmad the writing with a fine pen and with thick pen will look different to you. Do not have doubts! The Imam-asws then asked for a pen and inkpot and began writing. He made the pen to have ink from the bottom of the inkpot. I thought to myself when he was writing, ‘I will request him to gift me the pen with which he-asws is writing.’ When he finished writing he-asws turned to me and began speaking while he-asws was wiping the pen with the handkerchief of the inkpot for a while and then said, ‘Here, Ahmad it is for you.’ The Imam-asws gave it to me. I then said, ‘May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, I feel sad about something that is in my soul. I wanted to ask your-asws father-asws about it but I did not have the chance.’
He-asws asked, ‘What is it, O Ahmad?’ I said, ‘My master, it is narrated to us from your holy ancestors-asws that the Prophets-as sleep on their backs, the true believers sleep on their right side, the hypocrites sleep on their left side and Satans sleep on their belly.’
He-asws said, ‘That is how it is.’ I then said, ‘My master I try to sleep on my right side but I cannot do so.’ He-asws remained calm for a while and then said, ‘O Ahmad, come close to me.’ I went close to him and he said, ‘Place your hand under your clothes.’ I did so. He-asws then took his-asws hand and placed it under my clothes. He-asws used his-asws right hand to wipe my left side and his-asws left hand to wipe my right side three times. Ahmad has said that ever since I have not been able to sleep on my left side:’
Ahmed Bin Ishaq narrates that when he heard of the Shahadat of the 10th Imam-asws he went to Samarra and asked for the whereabouts of the 11th Imam-asws. Ahmed was told that Mu’tazz Billahl.a had imprisoned Imam-asws. Ahmed says, after bribing the guards, he was able to visit Imam-asws one night. He described the prison as a tunnel under the Khalifa’s home where there was no space to stretch one’s legs or to be able to stand. Ahmed says he cried when he saw Imam-asws’s condition. Food was only one glass of water and a piece of dry bread a day. After this, in the six years of the Imam-asws‘s Imamate several attempts were made by the Abbasidl.a to extinguish the Light of the Imamate. On the 1st of Rabi-ul Awwal 260 A.H. Mo’tamadl.a arranged for Imam-asws to be poisoned in prison and then sent him home. Imam-asws was in great pain and difficulty for eight days. On the 8th of Rabi-ul Awwal he-asws asked his son, the 12th Imam-asws, to bring him some water and then leave him. Imam-asws left for the better world on that day and was given ‘Ghusl & Kafan’ by Imam-asws‘s son, the 12th Imam-ajfj. The other important responsibility of Imam Hassan Askari-asws, had been to prepare Shias for the ‘minor Occultation’ of his son, Imam Mehdi-ajfj which was met through appointing his representatives who would receive written instructions from Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws and communicate with the followers of Ahlul Bait-asws, an environment they would face during the minor Occultation (Ghaibat-e-Sughra) which immediately took place after the martyred of Imam Hassan Al-Askari-asws.
Bequest of the 11th Imam-asws and Imamat of the 12th Imam-ajfj
‘It is narrated to us by the one who was present at the death of Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Muhammad Al-Askari-asws and his-asws burial, from the one who had not paused at the count of their-asws numbers, nor exceeded upon their-asws like colluding with the lies, and afterwards.
We were present in Shaban in the year two hundred and seventy-eight (278), and that was eighteen years or more after the passing away of Abu Muhammad Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali Al-Askari-asws, in a gathering of Ahmad Bin Ubeydullah Bin Khaqan, and he was an office bearer of the sultan on that day upon the taxation and the estates in the town of Qum, and he was from the most hostile of the creatures of Allah-azwj and there severest of enmity towards them-asws.
The discussion flowed about the ones from the progeny of Abu Talib-as at Surmanray, and their doctrines, and their righteousness, and their worth in the presence of the Sultan. Ahmad Bin Ubeydullah said, ‘I have neither seen nor known of any man from the Alawites at Surmanray being like Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Muhammad-asws Bin Al-Reza-asws, nor have I hear of him, in his-asws guidance, and his-asws silence, and his-asws chastity, and his-asws nobility, and his-asws benevolence in the presence of his-asws family members and the Sultan and entirety of the clan of Hashim-as, and their advancing him-asws upon ones with seniority from them, and like that the leaders, and the ministers, and the scribes, and the common people’.
And I was standing one day by the head of my father, and it was a day of his gathering to the people, when his guards entered to see him. They said to him, ‘The son-asws of Al-Reza-asws is at the door’. He said in a loud voice, ‘Permit for him-asws!’ There entered a brown man of excellent stature, handsome face, good physique, young age. There was majesty and awe for him-asws.
When my father looked at him-asws, he stood up walking some steps towards him-asws, and I had not known him to do this with anyone from the clan of Hashim-asws, nor with the leaders, nor with the prices. When he was near him-asws, he hugged him-asws, and kissed his-asws face and his-asws shoulders, and held his-asws hand, and seated him-asws upon his-asws prayer mat which he had been upon, and he seated to his-asws side facing towards him-asws with his face and went on to speak to him-asws, referring to him-asws by his-asws teknonym, and ransoming (saying, ‘May I be sacrificed for you-asws’), with himself and his fathers.
And I was surprised from what I had seen from him when the guards entered. They said, ‘Al-Muwafaq is coming!’ (Brother of caliph Al-Mu’tamid and commander of his army). And Al-Muwaffaq, whenever he came and entered to see my father, his guards and his special leaders would precede him. They would stand between the gathering of my father and between the door of the house in two rows until he would enter and exit.
My father did not cease to face towards him, discussing with him, until he looked at the special servants. On that day he said, ‘Whenever you-asws so desire, you-asws can stand (to go). May Allah-azwj Make me to be sacrificed for you-asws, O Abu Muhammad-asws!’
Then he said to his servants, ‘Take him-asws to be behind the two rows lest the commander sees him-asws!’ – meaning Al-Muwaffaq, and my father stood up and hugged him-asws and kissed his-asws face and went.
I said to the guards and his servants, ‘Woe be unto you all! Who is this one whom my father has done this with him-asws?’ They said, ‘He-asws is a man from the Alawites call Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws, known as ‘Son-asws of Al-Reza-asws’’. I was increasingly surprised and in that day of mine, I did not cease to be worried, thinking regarding his-asws matter and the matter of my father, and what I had seen from him, until it was the night.
And it was his norm that he would pray the evening Salat, then he would sit and look into what he needs from the matters and what he should be raising to the Sultan. When he considered and was seated, I came and sat in front of him. He said, ‘O Ahmad! Is there any request for you?’ I said, ‘Yes, O father! If you allow, I shall ask you about it’. He said, ‘I am permitted for you, O my son, so say whatever you like!’
I said, ‘O father! Who is the man whom I-asws saw you at lunchtime doing with him-asws what you did, from the revering, and the honouring, and the respecting, and ransoming him-asws with yourself and your fathers?’ He said, ‘O my son! That is the son-asws of Al-Reza-asws. That is an Imam-asws of the Rafizis (Shias)’.
He was silent for a while (then) he said, ‘O my son! If the caliphate were to decline from the Abbasid caliphs, no one from the clan of Hashim-as would be more rightful for it apart from this one, for this one deserves it due to his-asws merits, and his-asws chastity, and his-asws guidance, and his-asws self-maintenance, and his-asws ascetism, and his-asws worship, and his-asws beautiful mannerisms, and his-asws righteousness, and had you seen his-asws father-asws, you would have seen a man, majestic, noble, good, meritorious’.
I increased in worries and thinking and rage against my father from what I had heard from him regarding him-asws, and there did not happen to be any concern for me after that except the asking around about his-asws news and the searching about his-asws affairs.
I did not ask about him-asws, anyone from the clan of Hashim-as, and the leaders, and the scribes, and the judged, and the jurists, and rest of the people, except I found him-asws, in their view, to be in the peak of majesty, and the magnificence, and the lofty position, and the beautiful word, and the forefront over his-asws family and his-asws elders and others, and they were all saying, ‘He-asws is an Imam-asws of the Rafizis (Shias)’.
It magnified his-asws worth in my presence, when I did not see for him-asws, neither a friend nor an enemy except and he was of goodly word regarding him-asws and praised upon him-asws.
One of the people of the gathering, from the Asharites said to him, ‘O Abu Bakr! What is the state of his-asws brother Ja’far?’ He said, ‘And who Ja’far?’ He asked about his news, or associated with him, that Ja’far-asws was being open with the corruption, shameless, drinking the wines (intoxications), least of the men I had seen, and the most violating of the veil by himself, habitually intoxicated, little of chastity regarding himself.
By Allah-azwj! It was being referred to the Sultan and his companions at the time of the expiry of Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws, what I was surprised from it, and I did not think that it would happen, and that is because when he had sent a message to my father that the son-asws of Reza-asws was ill, he rode at that time to the house of the caliphate. Then he returned hastily, and with him were five persons from the servants of commander of the faithful, from his trusted ones and his special ones. From them was Nihreer (the lion-trainer).
And he ordered them with staying by the house of Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws and know his-asws news and his-asws situation, and he sent for a number of physicians, and he ordered them with the coming and going to him-asws and attending him-asws in morning and evening. When it was two days after that, someone came to him informing him that he-asws had weakened. He rode until he was early morning to him-asws.
Then he ordered the physicians with staying with him-asws, and he sent for the chief justice and presented him in his gathering and ordered him to choose ten from his companions, from the ones he trusted with regarding his religion and his loyalty, and his devoutness, and presented them. He dispatched them to the house of Al-Hassan-asws and ordered them with staying with him-asws night and day. They did not cease to be over there until he-asws expired on days having passed from the month of Rabbi Al-Awwal of the year two hundred and sixty (260).
Surmanray became one clamour, ‘The son-asws of Al-Reza-asws has died!’ And the Sultan sent to his-asws house someone who searched it, and searched its rooms, and sealed upon the entirety of whatever was in it, and they search for the traces of his-asws sonajtf, and they came with the women to know their pregnancies. They entered to his-asws slave girls. They looked at them. One of them mentioned, ‘Over there is a slave girl having a pregnancy with her’.
He ordered with her, and she was made to be in a room, and Nihreer the servant and his companions were allocated with her, and the women were with them. Then they took to preparing him-asws, and the markets were closed down, and my father and the clan of Hashim-asws and the leader and the scribes, and rest of the people rode to his-asws funeral. On that day, Surmanray became resembling with the (Day of) Qiyamah.
When they were free from preparing him-asws, the Sultan sent a message to Isa Bin Al-Mutawakkil and ordered him with praying the Salat upon him-asws. When the deceased was placed for the Salat, Abu Isa went near it. He uncovered from his-asws face and displayed it to the clan of Hashim-saww, from the Alawites, and the Abbasids, and the leaders, and the scribes, and the judges, and the jurists, and the regulators.
And he said, ‘This is Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws Bin Muhammad-asws Bin Al-Reza-asws! He-asws has died. His-asws nose perished upon his-asws bed. He-asws is attended by the ones who serve commander of the faithful, and his trusted ones, so and so, and so and so, and from the physicians, so and so, and so and so, and from the judges, so and so, and so and so!’
Then he covered his-asws face and stood up to pray Salat upon him-asws, and he exclaimed five Takbeers upon him, and ordered with carrying him-asws, and he-asws was carried from the middle of his-asws house and was buried in the room in which his-asws father-asws had been buried.
When he-asws was buried and the people dispersed, the Sultan and his companions became restless in search for his-asws son-asws, and frequented the searching in the dwellings, and the houses, and they paused from distributing his-asws inheritance; and the ones who had been allocated did not cease with guarding the slave girl which they had assumed was pregnant, staying with her for two years and more, until it became clear to them, the falsity of the pregnancy.
So his-asws inheritance was divided between his-asws mother-as, and his-asws brother Ja’far (the liar), and his-asws mother fulfilled his-asws bequest. And that was affirmed in the presence of the judge and the Sultan, based upon that, he searched for the trace of his-asws son-asws.
After the distribution of the inheritance, Ja’far came to my father and said to him, ‘Make to be for me the rank of my father-asws and my brother-asws, and I shall be sending to you twenty thousand Dinars every year’.
My father rebuked him and made him hear (harsh talk), and said to him, ‘O idiot! The Sultan, may Allah-azwj Cherish him, has bared his sword and his whip regarding those who claim that your father-asws and your brother-asws were Imams-asws, in order to retract them from that. But he was not able upon him-asws, and it did not work out for him to turn them away from this word regarding them-asws both, and he struggled to remove your father-asws and your brother-asws from that rank, but that did not work out for him.
So if you were to be in the presence of the Shias of your father-asws and your brother-asws, then there would be no need for you to any Sultan to rank you with their-asws ranks, nor other than a Sultan, and if you do not happen to be in their view of this status, you will not achieve (anything) with it’.
And he belittled him during that and weakened him, and he instructed to bar him from him. So he was no longer allowed with entering to see him until my father died, and we went out, and the matter was upon that state, and the Sultan has kept searching for the traces of the son-ajtf of Al-Hassan-asws Bin Ali-asws, until today’’.
 , H.3, بحار الأنوار (ط – بيروت)، ج50، ص: 236
 The Tribe of the Rasool Allahsaww
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 1
 A break-away Shia sect who believed in a line of seven Imams with the seventh, Musa al-Kazimasws, as the Qa’imasws (or Mahdiasws)
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 3
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 5
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 10
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 11
 The 12th Imamasws who will rise with Divine Authority and Power.
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 13
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 17
 Authority of Allahazwj
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 21
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 26
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapter on History, Imam Hassan Al-Askariasws Ibn Ali Al-Naqiasws, h 27
 Bihar-ul-Anwar, vol. 9, pp. 320
 Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Al Hassan Bin Ali-asws, Ch 4 H 1