‘Abu AI-Hassan Al-Reza-asws’s Nazool was on Thursday, the 11th of Zeeqad in 148 A.H. The Imam-asws was martyred on the 17th of Safar in the year 203 A.H. at the age of 51. Imam Ali Reza-asws was buried in Tus (now called Mashhad). Al-Mamoon (an ‘Abbasid ruler) gave poison to the Imam-asws, which was the cause of the Imam-asws’s Shahadat.
(A companion of Imam Ali Reza-asws says) When Imam Musa-e-Kazim-asws passed away, Imam Ali Al-Reza-asws spoke of his-asws Imamat (Leadership with Divine Authority) and it was worrying to us. It was said to him-asws: ‘You have declared a very great issue and we are afraid for your-asws life from this rebel (Harun ar-Rashid – the Abbasid ruler).’ The Imam-asws said: ‘Allow him (Harun the Abbasid ruler) to try his best but he will not find any way against me-asws.
The narrator of the Hadith says:‘l owed money to a man from the family of abu Rafi’ called Tays. He demanded payment and pressed me hard and people assisted him. When I found myself in such condition I prayed the morning prayer in the Masjid of Rasool Allah-saww and then went to Imam Al-Reza-asws, who was in a nearby city in those days. When I had almost reached his-asws door he-asws appeared on his-asws donkey wearing a shirt and a gown. When I looked at him-asws I felt shy, when he-asws approached me he-asws looked at me and I offered him-asws the greeting of peace. It was the month of Ramadan. I said: “May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your cause, (please) give some money to your slave, (which I owe to) Tays, and he has defamed me.”
‘I thought the Imam-asws would order him to stop pressuring me and by Allah-azwj, I did not tell the Imam-asws how much I owed nor did I mention any amount. Imam Ali Reza-asws ordered me to sit until he-asws returned. I remained there until I offered my sunset prayer and I was fasting. I felt depressed and I thought of returning home.
‘At that time, the Imam-asws appeared before me with people around him-asws. Beggars had surrounded him-asws and he-asws gave them charity. The Imam-asws passed by and entered his-asws house. Then the Imam-asws came out and called me inside. We both sat down and I began to speak to him-asws about Ibn al-Musayyib, the governor of Madina, as I used to speak to him-asws about the governor often. When I finished the Imam-asws said: “I do not think you have ended your fast yet.’ I said, ‘No, I have not ended it yet.” The Imam-asws asked for food and ordered a boy (servant) to join me at the table. The boy and I had our meal and when we finished the Imam-asws said to me: “Lift up the furnishing and pick up whatever is underneath.” I lifted it up and found Dinars therein. I picked them up and placed them in my pocket.
‘The Imam-asws ordered four of his-asws slaves to escort me to my house. I said: “May Allah-azwj Keep my soul in service for your-asws cause, the spies of Ibn al-Musayyib check around all the time and I would not like them to see me with your-asws slaves.” The Imam-asws said: “You are right, may Allah-azwj Keep you rightly guided.” The Imam-asws ordered them to return whenever I wanted them to do so.
‘When I almost reached my house and felt safe I asked them to go back. I went home and asked for a lamp. I looked at the Dinars and there were forty-eight of them. I owed twenty-eight to the man. Among them one Dinar caught my sight. I picked it up and brought it near the lamp. I found a clear mark on it that said: “Pay to the man twenty-eight Dinars and keep the rest for yourself.” By Allah-azwj, I did not tell the Imam-asws how much l owed to the man. All praise belongs to Allah-azwj Who has Granted honour to those whom He-azwj has Given Authority.’’
The narrator of the Hadith says: ‘Once, I requested to Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws (8th Imam) in a matter that I wanted to learn from him-asws and the Imam-asws asked me to wait. One day I was with him-asws and he-asws came near the castle of so and so and stopped for rest among a few trees. Just the two of us and not a third was there. I said: “May I be sacrificed for you-asws, a holiday is upon us, by Allah-azwj, all I have is one Dirham only and nothing else.” Imam-asws broke the surface of the earth with his-asws whip and with his-asws hand picked up a mould of gold and said: “Use it and keep secret what you just saw.”’
Imam Ali Reza-asws was Asked to come to Khurasan:
When the matter of the deposed Caliph (Amin) ended and it (the rule) was established for al-Mamoon, he wrote to Imam Al-Reza-asws asking to come to Khurasan. Abu Al-Hassan-asws in reply presented certain reasons to justify his disagreement with the proposal but Al-Mamoon continued writing until the Imam-asws found it unavoidable because he (al-Mamoon) would not leave him-asws alone.
The Imam-asws then decided to leave for Khurasan and at that time Imam Ali Reza-asws was only seven years old. Al-Mamoon wrote to him-asws: ‘Do not travel through the mountains and Qum. Take the road through Basra, al-Ahwaz and Persia.’ The Imam-asws arrived at Marw. Al-Mamoon offered him-asws to command and lead the task of Khilafat (leadership) but Abu Al-Hassan-asws declined. He then offered the Imam-asws to accept the position of a crown prince. The Imam-asws said that he might accept it under certain conditions, Al-Mamoon said: ‘Say whatever conditions you-asws like.’
The Imam-asws wrote: ‘I will assume this position with the conditions that I will not issue any order or prohibitions nor issue any fatwa or judgment nor any appointment or dismissal of officers or change anything in the current system. You must excuse me in all such matters.’ Al-Mamoon agreed to all such conditions.
The narrator has said that when it was ‘Id (the holiday) al-Mamoon asked Al-Reza-asws to attend the programme, lead the prayer and deliver the sermon. Al-Reza-asws replied to him saying: ‘You know the conditions between us. They did not consist of any such matters.’ Al-Mamoon sent the message: ‘I only want thereby to build confidence in the people by knowing your distinction.’ He continued insisting until the Imam-asws said: ‘I will appreciate it greatly if you excuse me from such task and if you still insist then I will do this task in the manner that Rasool Allah-saww and Amir-ul-Momineen Ali-asws would do.’
‘Al-Mamoon then said: ‘You may do as you choose.’ AI-Mamoon ordered the servants and guides to lead a procession to the door of Abu Al-Hassan-asws (Imam Reza-asws), saying “Allahu Akbar,” Allah-azwj is Great (beyond description).’
People lined up waiting for the Imam-asws on the roads and roof tops, men, women and children. The guides and people from the army gathered at the door of Abu Al-Hassan-asws (Ali Reza-asws). At sunrise the Imam-asws took a shower and wore a white turban made of cotton. He-asws let one end of the turban hang over his-asws chest and the other end between his shoulders on his-asws back.
Imam-asws tied his-asws belt and said to his followers, ‘Do as I have done.’ Imam Reza-asws picked up an arrow-shaped staff and came out and they went along with him-asws. He-asws was barefoot and his-asws gown was raised halfway between his feet and knees. When he-asws walked and we walked along with him-asws, he-asws raised his-asws head toward the sky and said, ‘Allahu Akbar’ four times. It seemed to us as if the sky and the walls responded to him-asws. The guides and the people at the door were ready and armed and decorated with the best dresses. When we came out in such fashion along with Al-Reza-asws he-asws paused at the door briefly. Imam Reza-asws then said: ‘Allahu Akbar. Allahu Akbar. Allahu Akbar. Allahu Akbar. He-azwj has Granted us guidance. Allahu Akbar. He-azwj has Granted us the cattle. All praise belongs to Allah-azwj. He-azwj has Granted us blessings.’ We all raised our voices.
Yasir Al-Khadim has said that the whole Marw (a name of a Place in Iran) shook with the weeping cries and shouts when they looked at Abu AI-Hassan Al-Reza-asws. Many of the guides fell from their horses. The horses kicked. The guides threw away their boots when they saw Abu Al-Hassan-asws barefoot. Imam Reza-asws would walk about ten steps and pause and say, ‘Allahu Akbar’ three times. Yasir Al-Khadim has said that to us it seemed as if the sky, earth and mountains responded along with him-asws. The whole Marw had become one voice loud and tearful. It was reported to al-Mamoon. Sahl Ibn al-Fadl, who had two official posts, said to him: ‘O commander of faithfuls, if Imam Al-Reza-asws will reach the place of prayer in this manner people will devotedly be attracted to him-asws. In my opinion, ask him-asws to return home.’
AI-Mamoon sent his people to ask Abu AI-Hassan-asws to return home. Imam Ali Reza-asws asked to bring his shoes and wore them and rode back home.
The Imam-asws is Needless of others wealth:
The narrator narrates in the Hadith:
‘I wanted to deliver an amount of property to Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws. It was a large amount. When the Imam-asws saw it he-asws did not show any sign of happiness. I became depressed and said to myself: “I delivered this property to him-asws but he-asws did not become happy.” The Imam-asws called: “O boy, bring water and the pot.”’
The narrator has said that the Imam-asws then sat on the chair and made a hand gesture to the boy to pour water on his hand. The narrator says that from Imam-asws’s hand gold began to fall in the pot (where the water from the hands of the Imam was going). The Imam-asws then turned to me and said: ‘One-asws who is capable of doing this, he-asws does not become happy for whatever you have delivered to him-asws.’
The Shahadat of Imam Ali-asws Ibn Musa-asws:
‘The narrator says in a Hadith:
Imam Ali-asws Ibn Musa-asws was martyred (through poisoning, organised by Mamoon Ar-Rashid) at the age of 49 and a few months in 202 A.H. The Imam-asws lived for 19 years and two or three months after the death of (his-asws father-asws) Imam Musa-asws Ibn Ja’far-asws.
Bequest of 8th Imam-asws:
(The narrator says) ‘One night I was in front of Al-Mamoun until four hours from the night had passed by. Then he permitted for me to leave. I left. When half of the night had passed by, there was a knock on the door. One of my servants answered. He said to him, ‘Say to Harsama, ‘Answer your chief!’
He said, ‘I stood up quickly and grabbed my clothes upon me and I hurried to my chief Al-Reza-asws. The slave entered in front of me, and I entered behind him, and there I was with my Master-asws seated in a courtyard of his-asws house. He-asws said: ‘O Harsama!’ I said, ‘Here I am, O my Master-asws!’ He-asws said: ‘Be seated!’ I sat down.
He-asws said to me: ‘Listen and retain, O Harsama! This is the year of my-asws departure to Allah-azwj the Exalted, and my-asws joining with my-asws grandfather-asws and my-asws forefathers-asws, and the Decree has reached its term, and this tyrant is determined upon poisoning me-asws in grapes and rubbed in a pomegranate.
As for the grapes, the thread was immersed in the poison, and it was pulled by the thread into the grapes. And as for the pomegranate, the poison was dropped in a palm of his slave and he rubbed the pomegranate with his hands in order to smear its seeds in that poison, and he will be summoning me-asws in that coming day and draw the pomegranate and the grapes to me-asws, and he will be asking me to eat them. So I-asws shall eat them.
Then he will enforce the order and the Decree shall present. So when I-asws am dead, he will be saying, ‘I shall wash him-asws with my hands!’ When he says that, say to him on my-asws behalf, ‘Between you and him-asws is that he said that you should neither present for my-asws washing, nor for my-asws shrouding, nor for my-asws burial, for if you were to do that, it would hasten to you from the Punishment what had been delayed from you, and the pain would be released with you what you were being cautious of’, so he would desist’.
He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘Yes my Master-asws!’
He-asws said, ‘When he vacates between you and my washing, he will go and sit in a higher place of its building, overlooking upon the place of my-asws washing, in order to look. Do not turn away my-asws washing for anything, O Harsama, until you see a white tent having been struck by the side of the house. When you see that, then carry me in my-asws clothes which I-asws would be in and place me-asws behind the tent and stop from behind it, and there would happen to be someone with you beside you.
And do not uncover from the tent to see me-asws for you will be destroyed. He (Al-Mamoun) will overlook upon you and say to you, ‘O Harsama! Didn’t you claim that the Imam-asws, no one can wash him-asws except an Imam-asws like him-asws? So who will wash Abu Al-Hassan Ali-asws Bin Musa-asws, and his-asws son-asws is in Al-Medina, from the country of Al-Hijaz, and we are at Toos?’
When he says that, then answer him and say to him, ‘We are saying that the Imam-asws, it is not obligatory that no one can wash him-asws except an Imam-asws, so if an exceeded were to exceed and wash the Imam-asws, it would not invalidate the Imamate of the Imam-asws due to the transgression of his-asws washer, nor would it invalidate the Imamate of the Imam-asws who would be after him-asws, by him-asws being overcome upon the washing of his-asws father-asws.
And if Abu Al-Hassan Ali-asws Bin Musa-asws had been left at Al-Medina, his-asws son-asws Muhammad-asws would have washed him-asws apparently, uncovering, and he-asws would not be washed now as well except he-asws is from where he-asws can hide’.
When the tent is raised, you shall soon see me-asws wrapped up in my-asws shroud, so place me-asws upon a bier and carry me. When he wants to dig my-asws grave, he will make the grave of his father Haroun Al-Rasheed as a Qiblah for my-asws grave, and that cannot happen to be, ever!
When the shovels are struck, there would be a burst from the ground and nothing would burst out from it, and not even like the chipping of a nail. When they struggle in that and it becomes difficult upon them, say to him on my-asws behalf that I had instructed you to strike one shovel in direction (as a Qiblah) of the grave of his father Haroun Al-Rasheed. When it is struck, there would be a hole in the ground to a pre-dug grace and a standing shrine.
When that grave is split, do not descend me-asws into it until white water bursts out from its shrine and that grave is filled up from it, until the water come (level) with the surface of the ground. Then a fish would be restless in it in its length. When it is restless, do not descend me-asws into the grave except when the fish disappears, and the water sinks in the ground. Then descend me in that grave and entomb me-asws in that shrine. And do not leave them to be coming with the soil throwing it upon me-asws, for the grave would layer by itself and fill up’.
He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘Yes, my Master-asws!’ Then he-asws said to me: ‘Memorise what I-asws have pacted to you, and work with it, and do not oppose’. I said, ‘I seek Refuge with Allah-azwj from opposing you-asws in any matter, O my Master-asws!’
Harsama said, ‘Then I went out crying, grieving. I did not cease to be like the seed upon a plate. No one knew what was within me except Allah-azwj the Exalted. Then Al-Mamoun summoned me, so I entered to see him. I did not cease to be standing until the day rose. Then Al-Mamoun said, ‘Go, O Harsama, to Abu Al-Hassan-asws and convey the greetings from me, and say to him-asws, ‘Either come to us or we shall come to you-asws!’ If he-asws says to you: ‘But we-asws shall go to him’, then ask him-asws on my behalf to bring that forward’.
He said, ‘I went to him-asws. When I emerged to him-asws, he-asws said to me: ‘O Harsama! Haven’t you memorised what I-asws had bequeathed to you with?’ I said, ‘Yes’. He-asws said: ‘Bring my-asws slippers forward, for I-asws know what he has sent you with’.
He (the narrator) said, ‘I brought his-asws slippers forward and he-asws walked to him. When he-asws entered the gathering, Al-Mamoun stood up to him-asws standing and hugged him-asws and kissed between his-asws eyes and seated him-asws to his side upon his throne and faced towards him-asws discussing with him-asws for a long time from the day. Then he said to one of his slaves, ‘Bring the grapes and the pomegranates!’
Harsama said, ‘When I heard that, I had not capacity to be patient, and I saw the trembling to have presented in my body. I disliked for that to be manifested in me, so I returned backwards until I went out and threw myself in a place from the house. When it was near to midday, I sensed my Master-asws to have come out from his presence and return to his-asws house.
Then I saw the commander to have come out from the presence of Al-Mamoun with presenting the doctors and the companions. I said, ‘What is this (going on)?’ It was said to me, ‘An illness has presented to Abu Al-Hassan Ali-asws Bin Musa Al-Reza-asws’. The people were in doubt, and I was upon certainty due to what I had known from it.
He (the narrator) said, ‘When it was from the second third of the night, there was a loud shout, and I heard the noise from the house. I hurried among the ones who hurried, and there we were with Al-Mamoun, uncovered of head, loosened of the trouser, standing by his-asws feet, lamenting and crying.
He (the narrator) said, ‘I paused among the ones who paused, and I was breathing the groans. Then we came to the morning. Al-Mamoun sat for the consoling, then he stood up and walked to the place in which was our Master-asws. He said, ‘Prepare the place for us for I want to wash him-asws. I went near him and said to him what my Master-asws had said, about the washing and the enshrouding and the burial. He said to me, ‘I will not object to that’. Then he said, ‘It’s your concern, O Harsama!’
He (the narrator) said, ‘I did not cease standing until I saw the tent to have been struck its back, and everyone in the house was below me, and I heard the exclamations of Takbeer, and the Oneness, and the Glorifications, clanging of the pots, and the pouring of water, and strong fragrance of perfume I had not smelt more aromatic than it.
He (the narrator) said, ‘Behold, I was looking at Al-Mamoun who was overlooking upon me from one of the high places of his house. He shouted at me, O Harsama! Haven’t you been claiming that the Imam-asws is such, no one can wash him except an Imam-asws like him? So where is his-asws son-asws Muhammad Bin Ali-asws from him-asws, and he-asws is at the city of the Rasool-asws, and this one is at Toos, at Khurasan?’
He (the narrator) said, ‘I said to him, ‘O commander of the faithful! We are saying that the Imam-asws, it is not obligatory that he-asws can only be washed by an Imam-asws like him-asws. So if an exceeder were to exceed and washes the Imam-asws, it would not invalidate the Imamate of the Imam-asws due to the transgression of his washer, nor would it invalidate the Imamate of the Imam-asws who is to be after him-asws, by him-asws having been overcome upon the washing of his-asws father-asws.
And if Abu Al-Hassan Ali-asws Bin Musa Al-Reza-asws had been left at Al-Medina, his-asws son-asws Muhammad-asws would have washed him-asws apparently, and he-asws will not be washed now as well except and he-asws would be from where he-asws is hidden!’
He (the narrator) said, ‘He was silent from me. Then the tent was raised, and there I was with my Master-asws wrapped up in his-asws shroud. I placed him-asws upon his-asws bier, then we carried him. Al-Mamoun prayed Salat upon him-asws and so did entirety of the ones present. Then we came to the place of the grave. We found them striking with the shovels beside the grave of Haroun in order to be a Qiblah for his-asws grave, and the shovels were digging from it, not digging even a particle from the soil of the ground.
He said to me, ‘Woe be to you, O Harsama! Don’t you see the ground how it is preventing from digging a grave for him-asws?’ I said, ‘O commander of the faithful! He-asws had instructed me that I should strike one shove in the direction of the grave of commander of the faithful your father Al Rasheed. I will not strike other than it’.
He said, ‘When you have struck, O Harsama, what would happen?’ I said, ‘He-asws informed that it is not allowed for the grave of your father to be a Qiblah for his-asws grave. So if I were to strike this one shovel, it would get to the pre-dug grace from without a hand having dug it, and a shrine would appear in its midst’.
Al-Mamoun said, ‘Glory be to Allah-azwj! How strange is this talk, and it is not strange from the matter of Abu Al-Hassan-asws, therefore strike, O Harsama, until we see!’
Harsama said, ‘I grabbed the shovel by my hand, and I struck in the direction of the grave of Haroun Al-Rasheed. It immersed to a pre-dug grave, and a shrine appeared in its midst, and the people were looking at it.
He said, ‘Descend him-asws into it, O Harsama!’ I said, ‘O commander of the faithful! My Master-asws had instructed me that I should not descend him-asws into it until white water bursts out from the ground of this grave, and the grave is filled from it, until the water becomes with the surface of the ground. Then a fish would be restless in it, in the length of the grave. When the fish disappears and the water sinks, I should place him-asws at the side of his-asws grave and vacate between him-asws and his-asws tomb’.
He said, ‘Do so, O Harsama, what you have been instructed with!’
Harsama said, ‘I awaited the appearance of water and the fish. It appeared, then disappeared, and the water sank, and the people were looking at it. Then I made the bier to be to the side of his-asws grave and covered his-asws grave with a white cloth, not spreading it. Then I descended with him-asws to his-asws grave without my hands nor the hand of anyone else from the ones present.
Al-Mamoun indicated to the people that they should take the soil with their hands and drop it into it. I said, ‘Do not do it, O commander of the faithful!’
He (the narrator) said, ‘He said, ‘Woe be to you! So who will fill it?’ I said, ‘He-asws had instructed me not to drop the soil upon him-asws, and he-asws informed me that the grave would form itself, then it would layer up, and square up upon the surface of the ground’. Al-Mamoun indicated to the people that they should stop.
He (the narrator) said, ‘They threw down whatever soil there was in their hands. Then the grave filled up and layered and squared up upon the surface of the ground. Al-Mamoun left, and I left. And Al-Mamoun summoned me and was alone with him, then he said, ‘I ask you with Allah-azwj, O Harsama! Only ratify me about Abu Al-Hassan-asws, may Allah-azwj Sanctify his-asws soul, with what I heard from you!’
I said, ‘I have already informed commander of the faithful with what he-asws had said to me’. He said, ‘By Allah-azwj, only what you can ratify me about what he-asws had informed you with other than which you said to me’. I said, ‘O commander of the faithful! What are you asking me about?’ He said, ‘O Harsama! Did he divulge any secret to you about anything other than this?’ I said, ‘Yes’. He said, ‘What is it?’ I said, ‘News of the grapes and the pomegranates’.
He (the narrator) said, ‘Al-Mamoun became changing colours, yellow at times, and red another (time), and black at another (time). Then he extended with unconsciousness upon him. I heard him in his fainting, and he was loud and saying, ‘Doom is for Al-Mamoun from Allah-azwj! Doom is for him from His-azwj Rasool-saww! Doom is for him from Ali-asws! Doom is for Al-Mamoun from (Syeda) Fatima-asws! Doom is for Al-Mamoun from Al-Hassan-asws and Al-Husayn-asws.
Doom is for Al-Mamoun from Ali-asws Bin Al-Husayn-asws! Doom is for him from Muhammad-asws Bin Ali! Doom is for Al-Mamoun from Ja’far-asws Bin Muhammad-asws! Doom is for him from Musa-asws Bin Ja’far-asws! Doom is for him from Ali-asws Bin Musa Al-Reza-asws! By Allah-azwj! This, it is the manifest loss!’ – saying this word and repeating it. When I saw him to have prolonged that, I turned away from him, and I sat in one of the corners of the house.
He (the narrator) said, ‘He sat up and summoned me. I entered to see him, and he was sitting like the intoxicated one. He said, ‘By Allah-azwj! You are not dearer to me than him-asws, nor entirety of the ones in the earth and the sky. If it ever reaches me that you have repeated after what you have heard, and seen anything, your destruction would be in it!’
He (the narrator) said, ‘I said, ‘O commander of the faithful! If you were to reveal upon anything from that from me, then you are free from my blood’. He said, ‘No, by Allah-azwj! Or you will give me a pact and a covenant upon concealing this, and he left repeating it. He took the pact and covenant upon me and emphasised it upon me.
He (the narrator) said, ‘When I turned around from him, I struck his hand and said, They are concealing from the people, and they cannot conceal from Allah, and He is with them when they are spending the nights in what does not Please Him from the words; and Allah was always Encompassing with what they were doing [4:108].
And for Al-Reza-asws, from the sons was Muhammad-asws the Imam-asws. And he-asws was called ‘Al-Reza’, and ‘Al-Sadiq’, and ‘Al-Sabir’, and ‘Al-Fazil’, and ‘Qurrat Ayn Al-Momineen’, and ‘Gayz Al-Mulhideen’’.
(The book) ‘I’lam Al Wara’, (and) ‘Al Irshad’ – Ibn Qawlawiya, from Al Kulayni, from Ali Bin Muhammad, from Sahl Bin Ziyad, from Muhammad Bin Al Waleed, from Yahya Bin Habeeb Al Zayyat who said,
‘The one who was in the presence of Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws informed me that when the people got up, Abu Al-Hassan Al-Reza-asws said to them: ‘The word is Abu Ja’far-asws, so greet unto him-asws and renew the pact with him-asws’. When the people got up, he-asws turned to me and said: ‘May Allah-azwj have Mercy on Al-Mufazzal. He was content with less than that’’.
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 4.
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 6.
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 7.
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 10.
 Al-Kafi, Vol. 1, Chapters on History, H. 11.
 Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 49, The book of History – Ali Al-Reza-asws, Ch 21 H 8
 Bihar Al-Anwaar – V 50, The book of History – Muhammad Bin Ali-asws, Ch 2 H 16